ICA and Dual Regression Practical

Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is a tool that we can use to decompose FMRI data into spatially independent components, with each component represented by a spatial map and a time course.

We can use ICA at the single subject level to separate out true neuronal signal from noise, and use ICA at the group level to identify whole brain resting state networks (RSNs) that are common across the group.

Melodic is the tool in FSL that we use at both the subject and group level to decompose FMRI data into time-courses and spatial maps using ICA.

Dual regression is a tool that we can use as part of a group-level resting state analysis to identify the subject-specific contributions to the group level ICA. The output of dual regression is a set of subject-specific spatial maps and time courses for each group level component (spatial map) that can be then compared across subjects/groups.

Contents:

Running single-subject ICA
Setting up and running ICA at the single-subject level.
Classifying and removing noise components from single-subject ICA
Manual and automated classification of ICs as signal or noise.
Registering cleaned single-subject data to the standard space
Aligning clean data to a common space ready for group level analysis
Running Group ICA
Setting up and running temporal concatenation group ICA.
Low versus high dimensional group ICA
Looking at how the ICA dimensionality (number of components) affects the results.
Using dual regression to investigate group differences
Estimating group level ICs, and comparing ICs across groups.

Running single-subject ICA

Preparing for the single-subject ICA

Just like with task-fMRI, before you can run single-subject resting-state analysis you first need to prepare the necessary images:

Single-subject ICA via the MELODIC GUI

MELODIC has a simple GUI that has been structured to be similar to the FEAT GUI. The MELODIC GUI will allow you to apply the necessary pre-processing and ICA options.

digraph G { rankdir=LR node [shape=box]; 1 [label="input image - raw resting 4D fmri"]; 2 [label="alternative reference image - high contrast volume (if multi-band)"]; 3 [label="fieldmaps - mag_brain and fmap_rads (if using)"]; 4 [label="structural - brain extracted"]; 5 [label="standard - MNI brain"]; 6 [label="melodic"]; 7 [label="report.html"]; 8 [label="/filtered_func_data.ica"]; 9 [label="filtered_func_data.nii.gz"]; 10 [label="..."]; 1 -> 6; 2 -> 6; 3 -> 6; 4 -> 6; 5 -> 6; 6 -> 7; 6 -> 8; 6 -> 9; 6 -> 10; }

Take a look at an example data directory:

cd ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/single_subject/CON_417

To set up the preprocessing and single-subject ICA, you would load in the following images (just as for task fMRI):

Can you identify the files listed above in the folder? Check your answer here

Open the Melodic GUI (Melodic_gui from MacOS) to see the similarity to the Feat GUI.

Click through the GUI and enter each of the images in the right place. Check with a tutor if you are not sure.

The recommended Pre-processing and Registration choices for single-subject resting-state analysis are largely the same as for task-fMRI, e.g. use MCFLIRT motion correction and FNIRT for non-linear registration(Note: You can find the additional information in B0_unwarping_info.txt. Leave other options as default). However, the following pre-processing choices should be considered when running single-subject ICA:

Running the ICA

You can also run the preprocessing and single-subject ICA via the Feat GUI by selecting Preprocessing from the top right drop-down list and selecting MELODIC ICA data exploration in the Pre-stats tab. This will run single-subject ICA with automatic dimensionality estimation.

Unlike for other FSL tools, the melodic command line is NOT equivalent to the GUI.The command line only performs ICA decomposition, while running MELODIC via the GUI will call different preprocessing steps and then use the melodic (command line) tool to perform ICA decomposition. Similarly, the FEAT GUI runs preprocessing and then can calls melodic command line to perform ICA decomposition. Also, note that the MELODIC GUI only allows you to change the basic options for ICA decomposition.

To set the GUI to run a single-subject ICA, go to the Stats tab and select Single-session ICA from the dropdown list. You can also choose whether to Variance-normalise the timecourses and whether to use Automatic dimensionality estimation. Leave them both on as default.

For single-subject ICA, the Post-stats tab can be left as default (Post-stats options do not affect the output of single-subject ICA, only the rendering of images in the report.html).

As the preprocessing and single-subject ICA would take too long to run in the practical today, just Save the settings in an .fsf file in the working directory. We have already run all the single-subject ICA on the data you will use for the rest of the practical.

Output of MELODIC single-subject ICA

We have run single-subject ICA via the FEAT GUI for you on a set of 12 subjects, including six patients with a tumour (~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/TUM_???) and six healthy controls (~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/CON_???). We are grateful to Natalie Voets for providing the datasets.

Change directory to look at the content of one of these subjects' /*.feat directory.

Many of the output images will be familiar from task-fMRI analysis, e.g. example_func.nii.gz, filtered_func_data.nii.gz and report.html.

Please note: These single-subject data have already been 'cleaned' (explained in the next section). The *_clean.nii.gz and labels.txt files are NOT automatically generated in the single-subject ICA.

Due to the fact that melodic has to make an initial guess about ICA decomposition, running melodic twice on the same data with the same settings can lead to small differences in the number and order of the estimated components.

The output from single-subjet ICA is the /filtered_func_data.ica directory. Go into the /filtered_func_data.ica directory and look at the contents.

The key output in this directory is the melodic_IC.nii.gz, which is a 4D image where each volume is a component generated in the single-subject ICA.


Classifying and removing noise components from single-subject ICA

The primary purpose of running single-subject ICA is to clean the single-subject data, by identifying and removing components relating to artefacts (e.g. motion, physiological noise). Among the filtered_func_data.ica/melodic_IC.nii.gz components we want to identify those relating to noise and remove them from the pre-processed 4D resting fMRI data (filtered_func_data.nii.gz) to produce a 'clean' version of the preprocesed data (filtered_func_data_clean.nii.gz). This process can be done manually or using an automated method. In this section you will learn how to do it in both ways.

Manual IC classification

In this part of the practical you are going to label ICA components as either signal or noise.

To do this you need to look carefully at three pieces of information for each component: 1) the spatial map, 2) the time course, and 3) the power spectrum of the time course. Take a look at the example spatial maps, time courses and power spectra for 'good' (signal) and 'bad' (noise) shown in the Figure below (the spatial maps shown are all noise components).

Figure 1 Figure 2

To get an understanding of the influence of data quality and quantity on the performance of ICA, you are going to take a look at two examples - one using multi-band data, one using non-multiband EPI data. We will use FSLeyes in Melodic mode to simultaneously show the spatial map, time course and power spectrum for each component.

cd  ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/IC_classification

Manual labelling of multi-band fMRI

In the first example, we have provided the components from a single-subject ICA run via the FEAT GUI on a 15-minute run of multiband data. No smoothing was applied during preprocessing.

First, load the Rest_MB6.feat/design.fsf in the FEAT GUI to see how the single-subject preprocessing and ICA was run for this subject.

Close the FEAT GUI and open the single-subject ICA output in FSLeyes:

fsleyes --scene melodic -ad Rest_MB6.feat/filtered_func_data.ica &
To load in the labels.txt file, make sure melodic_IC is selected in the overlay list.

Load the labels.txt file from the Rest_MB6.feat directory (it will show a message saying the label file does not refer to the melodic directory, which is because we renamed it - click on Apply the labels to the current overlay). You will now see labels for all the components except for ten which are labeled as Unknown (in yellow).

Please have a look at the 10 Unknown components and label each one as either Unclassified noise or as Signal (note that FSLeyes allows you to include more informative labels if you wish). Once you have classified all of the components, please save your results by overwriting the labels.txt file and close FSLeyes.

Manual labelling of EPI fMRI

In the second example, we have provided the components from a single-subject ICA run via the MELODIC GUI on an older EPI dataset that has fewer timepoints and bigger voxel size. Some smoothing has been performed during preprocessing of this dataset.

First, load the Rest_EPI.ica/design.fsf in the MELODIC GUI to see how the single-subject preprocessing and ICA was run for this subject.

Close the MELODIC GUI and open the single-subject ICA output in FSLeyes:

fsleyes --scene melodic -ad Rest_EPI.ica/filtered_func_data.ica &

Load the labels.txt file (inside Rest_EPI.ica) in the same manner as before, and classify the 10 Unknown components. Again, save the results by overwriting labels.txt and close FSLeyes.

Removal of noise components with fsl_regfilt

You will now manually "clean up" the EPI data example by removing the components that you classified as noise from your data. This is done using fsl_regfilt, which will regress the time courses of the noise components from the data.

digraph G { rankdir=LR node [shape=box]; 1 [label="fsl_regfilt"]; 2 [label="input image (-i Rest_EPI.ica/filtered_func_data.nii.gz)"]; 3 [label="ICA timeseries (-d Rest_EPI.ica/filtered_func_data.ica/melodic_mix)"]; 4 [label="list of noise component numbers (-f 1,2,3 ...)"]; 5 [label="output filename (-o Rest_EPI.ica/filtered_func_data_clean.nii.gz)"]; 2 -> 1; 3 -> 1; 4 -> 1; 1 -> 5; }

The help information from fsl_regfilt explains what the command does: "Data de-noising by regressing out part of a design matrix using simple OLS regression on 4D images". In our case, what does the design matrix contain?
Incorrect! Remember that this is resting state data, so there are no task regressors!
Correct! The timeseries from the components that are labelled as noise will be regressed out of the dataset.
Incorrect! This is a single-subject ICA analysis, so there are no subject labels at this point.

To manually remove the noise components from the Rest_EPI.ica data, first we need to get a list of IDs of the noise components:

tail -1 Rest_EPI.ica/labels.txt

Now we can pass this list of numbers to fsl_regfilt (important: in the command below, replace 1,2,3 with the output of the above command, making sure to remove the square brackets from the terminal output and include the quotes '' in the command):

fsl_regfilt -i Rest_EPI.ica/filtered_func_data.nii.gz \
            -d Rest_EPI.ica/filtered_func_data.ica/melodic_mix \
            -o Rest_EPI.ica/filtered_func_data_clean.nii.gz \
            -f "1,2,3"

Make sure you understand what each of the command's flags do. If not sure, check the help and/or ask a tutor.

In FSLeyes, open the original pre-processed data (Rest_EPI.ica/filtered_func_data.nii.gz) and the cleaned pre-processed data (Rest_EPI.ica/filtered_func_data_clean.nii.gz) and look at them in movie mode.

Automatic IC classification and noise removal

To avoid manual labelling of all the components for every single subject, tools have been developed to try automatically identify components that represent structured noise in fMRI data. We will take a look at two of these tools:

Now you are going to compare your own classification of signal and noise components for the EPI data to classifications done by FIX. If you are interested in comparing also the output from AROMA, see the optional section at the end of the practical.

FIX classified components

FIX has already been run on the Rest_EPI.ica data using the following command:

fix Rest_EPI.ica training.RData 30 -m

A key output of FIX is a .txt file that lists the classification of each component, and provides a comma separated list of noise ICs at the bottom. The name of the txt file is formatted as: fix4melview_‹training data›_thr‹threshold›.txt

Use the tail command to get a list of the components that were classified as noise by FIX, and compare them against your own results (what you passed to fsl_regfilt, above).

Click here to check the command to list the FIX-classified noise components.

Note that FIX automatically regresses out the noise components and produce the 4D cleaned data as part of the output (see the relative user guides for details), therefore there is no need to apply fsl_regfilt separately.


Registering cleaned single-subject data to the standard space

If you run group ICA via the MELODIC GUI, the GUI can apply the transformations/warps to align the single subject data to the standard space. HOWEVER, if you have applied cleaning at the single subject level (which is recommended!), you currently cannot use the MELODIC GUI to run the group ICA, because the GUI would use the un-cleaned images. Instead, as you will see in the next practical, you need to run the group ICA from the melodic command line on data already registered in standard space.

The clean preprocessed 4D resting state data produced by the steps above (filtered_func_data_clean.nii.gz) is still in the native subject space. In fact, the MELODIC/FEAT Registration settings at the single-subject level only generate the transformations/warps necessary to align the functional data to the standard space without applying them. Therefore, before moving on to the group analysis, the cleaned single-subject data needs to be aligned to the standard space by applying the transformations/warps.

Let's go back to our tumour patients (TUM_*) and controls (CON_*) inside ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/ and align the filtered_func_data_clean.nii.gz to the standard space, using the applywarp command:

digraph G { rankdir=LR node [shape=box]; 1 [label="applywarp"]; 2 [label="input image (-i filtered_fund_data_clean.nii.gz)"]; 3 [label="reference image (-r reg/standard.nii.gz)"]; 4 [label="transformation matix (--premat=reg/example_func2highres.mat)"]; 5 [label="output filename (-o filtered_func_data_clean_standard)"]; 6 [label="FNIRT warp image (-w reg/highres2standard_warp.nii.gz)"]; 2 -> 1; 3 -> 1; 4 -> 1; 6 -> 1; 1 -> 5; }

Type applywarp to see the usage and work out how to run the registration of the cleaned data to standard space for subject CON_417 using the transformations/warps generated when running the single-subject MELODIC. Check your answer here

To save us manually registering each of our tumour patients and controls we can use a simple script that processes all subjects simultaneously. For more details see the optional section at the end of this practical.


Running Group ICA

digraph G { rankdir=LR node [shape=box]; 1 [label="text file listing input filenames (-i input_files.txt) type cat input_files.txt to take a look"]; 2 [label="output directory name (-o groupICA15)"]; 3 [label="repetition time (TR) (--tr=0.72)"]; 4 [label="approach, here temporal concatenation (-a concat)"]; 5 [label="generate web report (--report)"]; 6 [label="output everything (-Oall)"]; 7 [label="ICA decomposition dimensionality (-d 15)"]; 8 [label="melodic"]; 9 [label="other options"]; 1 -> 8; 8 -> 2; 3 -> 8; 4 -> 8; 8 -> 5; 8 -> 6; 9 -> 8; }

If you have applied cleaning at the single subject level (which is recommended!), you currently cannot use the MELODIC GUI to run the group ICA, because the GUI would use the un-cleaned images. Therefore, we need to use the melodic command line to run group ICA.

The ${FSLDIR} part of this command finds the location where FSL is installed on your computer, so you can type ${FSLDIR}/data/standard/MNI152_T1_2mm instead of e.g. /usr/local/fsl/data/standard/MNI152_T1_2mm - this is particularly useful if you are not sure where FSL is installed.

An example group ICA has been run before you using the following command (don't run this - it takes too long for this practical):

melodic -i input_files.txt -o groupICA15 \
  --tr=0.72 --nobet -a concat \
  -m $FSLDIR/data/standard/MNI152_T1_2mm_brain_mask.nii.gz \
  --report --Oall -d 15

Type melodic into the terminal and use the command usage to work out what each flag in the command above means. How many group components will be generated in this analysis? Check your answer here

If you wanted to extract 200 components, which part of the command would you change?
Correct! The -d flag controls the dimensionality of the decomposition
Incorrect! This just controls the name of the output directory, it does not have any influence on the dimensionality. For this you need to change the -d flag.
Incorrect! Command line versions always have at least the same number of options that are available in the GUI (and often more options). To change the dimensionality, use the -d flag.

Output of group ICA

Change directory to ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/groupICA15/ to look at the output of the group MELODIC run with the command above.

The key output from the group MELODIC is the melodic_IC.nii.gz. This is a 4D image where each volume corresponds to an ICA component. This melodic_IC.nii.gz can be used as a group level template (spatial basis) to feed into dual regression (more on this later).


Low versus high dimensional group ICA

In this section, you will have a look at the melodic_IC components from example group ICAs run with low and high dimensionality.

Change directory into ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/low_high_ICA_dim

We have run group ICA with 25 dimensions and with 50 dimensions for you, using the following commands:

melodic -i input_files.txt -o GroupICA_25_s0_n820_MB8_HCP \
  --tr=0.72 --nobet -a concat \
  -m $FSLDIR/data/standard/MNI152_T1_2mm_brain_mask.nii.gz \
  --report --Oall -d 25 
  melodic -i input_files.txt -o GroupICA_50_s0_n820_MB8_HCP \
    --tr=0.72 --nobet -a concat \
    -m $FSLDIR/data/standard/MNI152_T1_2mm_brain_mask.nii.gz \
    --report --Oall -d 50 

You can compare the group ICA maps calculated with different dimensionalities (25 vs 50) by loading them in FSLeyes:

fsleyes -std \
  melodic_IC_25_s0_n820_MB8_HCP.nii.gz -un -dr 30 100 -n 25 \
  -cm red-yellow -nc blue-lightblue \
  melodic_IC_50_s0_n820_MB8_HCP.nii.gz -un -dr 30 100 -n 50 \
  -cm red-yellow -nc blue-lightblue &

Make sure that the two images are unlinked (that the buttons next to each image's name is toggled off).

Now go to the ‘View’ menu at the top and add a second ortho view, so we can look at the 25 and 50 images side-by-side. Next, make sure that the window on the left is showing the 25 results (by clicking the toggle button next to 50), and make sure that the window on the right is showing the 50 results (by clicking the toggle button next to 25).

In the left view, select the 25 image, and change the volume control to 5. Then in the right view, select the 50 image, and look at volumes 32, 33 and 35. Make sure to navigate to somewhere inside the component (for example around voxel location 45 45 65). As you can see, the original network in the 25 dimensional ICA shown on the left of your screen is split into three separate components at a dimensionality of 50, namely a left and right lateralised and a medial region. Another example is to compare component 2 in the 25-dimensional decomposition to components 5, 9, 11 and 14 in the 50-dimensional decomposition.


Using Dual Regression to investigate group differences

A dual regression analysis is used to map the RSNs (i.e. group-level components or an external template or set of ROIs) back into individual subjects data, e.g. in order to examine between-group difference in the RSNs. We will use the group ICA generated from melodic in the section Running Group ICA as spatial basis to input into dual regression.

Dual regression works in three stages, each with its own output:

digraph G { rankdir=LR node [shape=box]; 1 [label="group-level ICA maps (groupICA15/melodic_IC)"]; 2 [label="variance normalisation (1) i.e. on"]; 3 [label="EVs of group-level design matrix (design/unpaired_ttest.mat)"]; 4 [label="contrasts of group-level design matrix (design/unpaired_ttest.con)"]; 5 [label="number of permutations for randomise (e.g. 5000)"]; 6 [label="output directory name (groupICA15.dr)"]; 7 [label="text file listing input filenames (`cat input_files.txt`) note use of back quotes"]; 8 [label="dual_regression"]; 9 [label="output: stage1"]; 10 [label="timecourses fed back into dual regression to estimate stage 2"]; 11 [label="timecourses can also be fed into FSLnets analysis (next practical)"]; 12 [label="output: stage2"]; 13 [label="spatial maps fed into randomise for group analysis"]; 14 [label="output: stage3"]; 15 [label="statistical maps for visualisation and interpretaion of results"]; 1 -> 8; 2 -> 8; 3 -> 8; 4 -> 8; 5 -> 8; 7 -> 8; 8 -> 6; 6 -> 9; 6 -> 12; 6 -> 14; 9 -> 10; 9 -> 11; 12 -> 13; 14 -> 15; }

Before running dual regression

Before we can run dual regression, we need to have:

NB: the input list for dual regression is the same as that used for input to group MELODIC.

In the ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/ directory, we have already created the inputlist_new.txt containing the filepaths to each of our 6 controls and 6 tumour patients filtered_func_data_clean_standard.nii.gz.

We also have our group level components (~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/groupICA15/melodic_IC.nii.gz) obtained in the section Running Group ICA

We just need to set up the group-level design to perform group comparisons. In this analysis, we want to compare resting-state connectivity between our six patients with a tumour and the six healthy controls using an unpaired t-test.

Use the Glm GUI to set up a group-level design with 4 contrasts to model the mean for controls, the mean for patients, as well as con > pat and pat > con. The input directories containing the cleaned and registered single-subject data are labelled CON_* for control subjects and TUM_* for patients (take this naming into consideration when setting up your design).

Click here to check you have set up your design correctly, then save it.

Running dual regression

Type dual_regression into the terminal to see details of the command usage. Using the data prepared above (subject files' list, groupICA15/melodic_IC group ICA maps and design files), work out the command we used to run this dual regression. Click here to check the command you have come up with is correct.

As the dual regression analysis is too long to run in the practical session, we have already ran the dual regression analysis for you. The output is located in ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/groupICA15.dr

Output of dual regression

Move back into the ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA directory.

Type ls groupICA15.dr into the terminal to view the output of the dual regression.

Viewing the results of dual regression

To view the results from the dual regression analysis, type the following into the terminal:

fsleyes -std groupICA15/melodic_IC \
  -un -cm red-yellow -nc blue-lightblue -dr 4 15 \
  groupICA15.dr/dr_stage3_ic0007_tfce_corrp_tstat3.nii.gz \
  -cm green -dr 0.95 1 &

Make sure you are viewing the dr_stage3_* statistical map over the appropriate volume of melodic_IC - set the volume of the melodic_IC image to the same number of the IC shown in the randomise statistical image loaded (e.g dr_stage3_ic?????).

The difference between the two groups is very small (because we only had 12 subjects and therefore not much statistical power). To find the result, go to voxel location [63, 81, 54]. You may want to change the minimum threshold at the top to 0.9 to show the results at a slightly more lenient p-value.

What is the name of the file that I would need to look at if I were interested in contrast 2 for network 12? Check your answer here

When you were looking at the dual regression results, the minimum threshold of the tfce_corrp_tstat3 image that was loaded was set to either 0.95 or 0.9. What do these values mean?
Incorrect! As the name of the file suggests, you are looking at a corrp image (i.e. the values are p-values that have been corrected for multiple comparisons). The p-values are shown as 1 minus the p-value to help make it easier to visualise. Therefore a threshold of 0.95 means that you are looking at results p<0.05 corrected, and a threshold of 0.9 shows results p<0.1 corrected.
Incorrect! These images contain 1 minus the p-value to help make it easier to visualise. Therefore a threshold of 0.95 means that you are looking at results p<0.05 corrected, and a threshold of 0.9 shows results p<0.1 corrected.
Correct! To make it easier to visualise, the results are saved as 1 minus the p-value. Note that you are looking at the corrp image, so these p-values have been corrected for multiple comparisons.

A quick script that is useful for checking the maximum of every 1-p-value image across a set of dual regression stage 3 outputs is below. You can try to run it on the dual regression output we provided you with in groupICA15.dr. If the maximum value in any given image is not above 0.95, you know that nothing survived thresholding:

cd groupICA15.dr
for i in dr_stage3_ic00??_tfce_corrp_tstat?.nii.gz ; do
    echo $i `fslstats $i -R`;
done

You can also run randomise as a separate stage from dual regression. If you are interested in more details, see the optional section at the end of the practical.


The End.


(Optional) AROMA classified components

AROMA has also already been run on the Rest_EPI.ica data using the following command:

python2.7 ICA_AROMA.py \
-in filtered_func_data.nii.gz \
-out AROMA \
-mc mc/prefiltered_func_data_mcf.par \
-affmat reg/example_func2highres.mat \
-warp reg/highres2standard_warp.nii.gz \
-md filtered_func_data.ica
If the single-subject ICA directory is not specified (with the -md or -meldir flag), AROMA will run ICA decomposition as well. See user guide for details.

The output of AROMA is in a directory /AROMA, and the identified noise components are listed in a text file classified_motion_ICs.txt

Use the cat command to get a list of the components that were classified as noise by AROMA, and compare them against your own results (what you passed to fsl_regfilt).

Click here to check the command to list the AROMA-classified noise components.

Note that AROMA automatically regresses out the noise components and produce the 4D cleaned data as part of the output (see the relative user guides for details), therefore there is no need to apply fsl_regfilt separately.

Back to main practical

(Optional) Scripting

To save us manually registering each of our tumour patients and controls, we can run the following simple script from ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/ to process all subjects simultaneously.

#!/bin/sh
for j in `ls -d */*_resting.feat` ; do
    applywarp -r ${j}/reg/standard.nii.gz \
              -i ${j}/filtered_func_data_clean.nii.gz \
              -o ${j}/filtered_func_data_clean_standard.nii.gz \
              --premat=${j}/reg/example_func2highres.mat \
	      -w ${j}/reg/highres2standard_warp.nii.gz
done
ls -1 */*_resting.feat/filtered_func_data_clean_standard.nii.gz >> inputlist_new.txt

The output of this script will be a standard space clean preprocessed 4D resting image for each subject (filtered_func_data_clean_standard.nii.gz) as well as a txt file (inputlist_new.txt), which contains a list of the filepaths to the filtered_func_data_clean_standard.nii.gz for each subject. This list is necessary for running the group ICA and the dual regression, which will be covered in the next practical.

The registration script above is also saved in the ~/fsl_course_data/rest/ICA/optional_script.sh directory. You can run it by typing (don't do this now, it takes around 20 mins to run):

sh ./optional_script.sh

Back to main practical

(Optional) Running dual regression and randomise separately

The standard dual_regression command automatically runs randomise to perform between-group statistical comparisons for *every* component that is input to dual regression, *when provided with a design*. However, you can also run stage 1 and 2 of dual regression only and separately run randomise after dual regression has finished.

You may want to do this if you need to run a different test on the same data (avoiding re-calculating the single-subject maps), have more controls over randomise options, or if you are interested in running the statistical analysis only on one or a subset of RSNs (avoiding running tests on all the components).

Type dual_regression into the command line to recap the usage and work out how would you change the command you used above to run only stage 1 and stage 2 of dual regression.

Check your answer here

Back to main practical