Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
AVW |
Analyze file format |
BET |
Brain Extraction Tool - segments brain from non-brain in structural and functional data |
COPE |
Contrast of Parameter Estimates |
DOF |
Degrees Of Freedom, the number of independent pieces of information that go into the estimate of a parameter |
EV |
Explanatory Variable, an effect (e.g. type of stimulation, confound) that is included in a general linear model |
FAST |
FMRIB's Automated Segmentation Tool - brain segmentation (into different tissue types) and bias field correction |
FE |
Fixed Effects. FE variance is the within-session across-time variances estimated in first-level analyses |
FEAT |
FMRI Expert Analysis Tool - for preprocessing and statistical analysis of FMRI data |
FILM |
FMRIB's Improved Linear Model - for GLM-based analysis of first level (time series) data with prewhitening |
FIR |
Finite Impulse Response, a discrete, fixed duration resonse to an impulse |
FLAME |
FMRIB's Local Analysis of Mixed Effects - for higher level analyses of multiple subjects/sessions |
FLIRT |
FMRIB's Linear Image Registration Tool - linear inter- and intra-modal registration |
FMRIB |
Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain |
FSL |
FMRIB Software Library - a collection of functional and structural brain image analysis tools |
FUGUE |
FMRIB's Utility for Geometrically Unwarping EPIs - Unwarps geometric distortion in EPI images using B0 field maps |
FWHM |
Full Width between Half Maximum values of a function |
GLM |
General Linear Model (more properly referred to as just "linear model") |
GRF |
Gaussian Random Field. GRF theory is used in various thresholding techniques |
GUI |
Graphical User Interface - lets users interact with tools using a "point and click" approach rather than typing text into a command line. |
HRF |
Haemodynamic Response Function, describes the delayed, blurred haemodynamic response that occurs in response to a stimulus |
ICA |
Independent Component Analysis |
MCFLIRT |
Motion Correction using FMRIB's Linear Image Registration Tool |
MCMC |
Markov Chain Monte Carlo, a sampling technique |
ME |
Mixed Effects. ME variance is the sum of "fixed-effects" variance and "random-effects" variance |
MELODIC |
Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components - PICA-based model-free analysis of FMRI data |
MNI |
Montreal Neurological Institute. The MNI152 template is a standard-space average of 152 brains |
OLS |
Ordinary Least Squares, a technique for calculating the parameters in a regression equation that minimizes the sum of the squares of the error terms |
PE |
Parameter Estimate, an estimate of how strongly an EV fits the data at each voxel |
PICA |
Probabilistic Independent Component Analysis |
RE |
Random Effects. RE variance is the "true" cross-session variances of first-level parameter estimates |
SIENA |
Structural brain change analysis - for estimating brain atrophy (stands for: Structural Image Evaluation, using Normalisation, of Atrophy) |
SUSAN |
nonlinear noise reduction (stands for: Smallest Univalue Segment Assimilating Nucleus) |
TBSS |
Tract-Based Spatial Statistics - a method for carrying out voxelwise comparisons of diffusion data across subjects |
TR |
Repetition Time - time between scanning succesive brain volumes |